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NORMAL LANDING

NORMAL LANDING

Description

Approach and landing with headwind or light wind, hard surface of sufficient length and no obstructions.

Objective

To teach techniques necessary for a normal landing.

Elements

         Clear the area

         Choose forced landing area (should be runway)

         Configure aircraft for pattern entry (C172RG: 18 Hg, 2500 RPM, 90 KIAS)

         Select outside references (e.g. runway numbers)

         Enter downwind, maintaining traffic pattern altitude (typically 1000 AGL)

         Configure aircraft for approach: CCGUMPS check: Cowl flaps closed, Carburetor heat on, Gas (fuel to both), Undercarriage (gear extended), Mixture (full rich), Propeller (full RPM), Switches (lights as necessary)

         Abeam touchdown point, power and pitch for approach (C172RG: 15 Hg, 85 KIAS)

         First notch of flaps (C172RG: 10)

         Coordinated turn to base (≤30 bank), when reference point is 45 behind the wing

         On base: second notch of flaps, begin to slow for final (C172RG: 20, 75 KIAS)

         Clear area, then turn to final (≤30 bank)

         On final: remaining flaps (C172RG: 30) when runway is assured, CCGUMPS check

         Select aim point (e.g. before runway numbers)

         Adjust pitch and power to maintain normal approach speed and descent angle (C172RG: 65 KIAS)

         Trim to relieve control pressures

         Make sure feet are not on brakes

         10-20 off ground: reduce throttle to idle

         Gradually apply back pressure to pitch for landing attitude, attempting to fly just above runway (fly in ground effect) straight-and-level until passing aim point, then continue adjusting pitch for climb attitude just above horizon

         Touchdown on main gear just above stalling speed

         Maintain pitch attitude for aerodynamic braking

         Gradually relax back pressure to lower nose wheel

         Gentle braking as required

 

Include a discussion on performance charts and other landing scenarios. Keep one hand on throttle.


Common Errors

         Inadequate wind drift correction on the base leg

         Overshooting or undershooting the turn onto final approach resulting in too steep or too shallow a turn onto final approach

         Flat or skidding turns from base leg to final approach as a result of overshooting/inadequate wind drift correction

         Poor coordination during turn from base to final approach

         Failure to complete the landing checklist in a timely manner

         Unstabilized approach

         Failure to adequately compensate for flap extension

         Poor trim technique on final approach

         Attempting to maintain altitude or reach the runway using elevator alone

         Focusing too close to the airplane resulting in a too high roundout

         Focusing too far from the airplane resulting in a too low roundout

         Touching down prior to attaining proper landing attitude

         Failure to hold sufficient back-elevator pressure after touchdown

         Excessive braking after touchdown

References

FAA-H-8083-3A Airplane Flying Handbook p. 8-1


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