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A maximum performance 180º climbing turn.


To teach planning, orientation, division of attention and control feel for maximum performance flight.


·         Clear the area

·         Choose forced landing area

·         Configure aircraft for maneuvering: ≤ VA with propeller to full (C172RG: 18” Hg, 2500 RPM, 106 KIAS at MGW), gear up, flaps up, cowl flaps open, altitude ≥1500’ AGL

·         Select outside references (off wingtip for 90º point)

·         Establish a coordinated 30° bank turn

·         Throttle to full (C172RG: 25” Hg, 2500 RPM)

·         Apply pitch to arrive at 90° reference point with max desired pitch

·         Anticipate need for rudder pressure

·         Maintain pitch attitude once at 90º with increasing back elevator pressure while reducing bank to 180º point

o        As aircraft slows, greater back elevator is required to maintain pitch

·         At 180° point, roll wings level, (90º point is now off opposite wing from the start), slightly above stall speed

o        Rolling out of a left chandelle requires more right rudder pressure

o        Rolling out of a right chandelle requires little rudder pressure, but will require right rudder pressure to maintain heading upon completion of rollout

·         Gently reduce pitch to straight-and-level but maintain altitude and build airspeed

·         Adjust throttle to maintain altitude

·         Maintain ball centered

·         Look for traffic


Easy way to remember the maneuver’s basics: “Bank and Yank”. Can do this maneuver at cruise (C172RG: 18” Hg, 2300 RPM) for constant-speed propellers, but should use maximum RPM for fixed-pitch propellers (watch to not go into red line on tachometer).

Common Errors

·         Failure to adequately clear the area

·         Too shallow an initial bank, resulting in a stall

·         Too steep an initial bank, resulting in failure to gain maximum performance

·         Allowing the actual bank to increase after establishing initial bank angle

·         Failure to start the recovery at the 90° point in the turn

·         Allowing the pitch attitude to increase as the bank is rolled out during the second 90° of turn

·         Removing all of the bank before the 180° point is reached

·         Nose low on recovery, resulting in too much airspeed

·         Control roughness

·         Poor coordination (slipping or skidding)

·         Stalling at any point during the maneuver

·         Execution of a steep turn instead of a climbing maneuver

·         Failure to scan for other aircraft

·         Attempting to perform the maneuver by instrument reference rather than visual reference


FAA-H-8083-3A Airplane Flying Handbook p. 9-4

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