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Certified Flight Instructor Resources by Derek W Beck




Level flight, turns, climbs, and descents performed in various configurations at the minimum controllable airspeed.


To teach planning, orientation, division of attention and control feel during slow flight.


         Clear the area

         Choose forced landing area

         Configure aircraft: ≥1500 AGL, carburetor heat on, gear down, cowl flaps open, full flaps, power and pitch for 1.3 VSO (C172RG: 15 Hg, 2700 RPM, 55 KIAS)

         Select outside references

         Adjust pitch and power to maintain airspeed and altitude

         Fly straight-and-level, coordinated standard rate turns, climbs and descents in slow flight

         Maintain ball centered

         Look for traffic


         Smoothly advance power to full

         Carburetor heat off

         Retract one notch of flaps (C172RG: 20)

         Upon positive rate of climb, retract second notch of flaps

         Gear up

         Flaps 0

         Cowl flaps closed

         Look for traffic


Controllability and Maneuverability:

         Flight controls are less effective due to reduced airflow; more control pressure is required

         In the back side of the power curve: pitch for airspeed, power for altitude

         Torque effect is very prominent

         High gross weight and forward CG increase stall speed

         Increase the bank angle, load factor and stall speed increase

Common Errors

         Failure to establish specified gear and flap configuration

         Improper entry technique

         Failure to establish and maintain the specified airspeed

         Excessive variations of altitude and heading when a constant altitude and heading are specified

         Rough or uncoordinated control technique

         Improper correction for torque effect

         Improper trim technique

         Unintentional stalls

         Inappropriate removal of hand from throttles


FAA-H-8083-3A Airplane Flying Handbook p. 8-21

FAA-S-8081-6CS Flight Instructor for Airplane Single-Engine Land and Sea PTS p. 1-50

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